King in front of the Pawn having the opposition
What happens when the King of the side with the extra pawn is in front of the Pawn but hasn’t yet reached the 6th (3rd for Black) rank?
Rule 3: King is in front of the Pawn and has the opposition.
In this typical position the win depends on who has the opposition.
If White has the opposition, then Black loses after
1… Kd7 (1… Kf7 is the same 2. Kd6)
2. Kf6 Ke8 and White wins because the King has reached the 6th rank and is in front of the Pawn. (This position has been analysed in previous lesson King on the 6th rank).
3. Ke6 Kf8 4. Kd7
However, with White to move, Black holds the draw by taking and keeping the opposition.
1. Kf5 Kf7 (taking the opposition)
2. Ke5 Ke7 3. Kd5 Kd7 4. e5 This is the only way to make progress, but now the pawn occupies the king’s place, which prevents White from taking over the opposition after
4… Ke7 5. e6 and now
5… Ke8 because Black must be ready to take the opposition. Of course not 5...Kd8?? or 5... Kf8?? allowing White to oppose with 6. Kd6! Ke8 7. e7+–.
6... Kd6 Kd8 = Taking the opposition.
In the following position White wins regardless of who plays.
If White to move then
1. e4 taking the opposition.
If it is Black to play then
1... Kd7 2. Kf6 reaching the 6th rank.
Remember: If the King is in front of the Pawn but hasn't yet reached the 6th rank, then the result depends on who has the opposition. If the side with the extra pawn has the opposition then wins.